Our mission is to help leaders in multiple sectors develop a deeper understanding of the global economy. Our flagship business publication has been defining and informing the senior-management agenda since The construction industry is ripe for disruption.
Large projects across asset classes typically take 20 percent longer to finish than scheduled and are up to 80 percent over budget Exhibit 1.
Construction productivity has actually declined in some markets since the s Exhibit 2 ; financial returns for contractors are often relatively low—and volatile. While the construction sector has been slow to adopt process and technology innovations, there is also a continuing challenge when it comes to fixing the basics. Project planning, for example, remains uncoordinated between the office and the смотреть приключение секса в 20 веке без регистрачыи исмс and is often done on paper.
Contracts do not include incentives for risk sharing and innovation; performance management is inadequate, and supply-chain practices are still unsophisticated. The industry has not yet embraced new digital technologies that need up-front investment, even if the long-term benefits are significant Exhibit 3.
This is also true for spending on information technology, which accounts for less than 1 percent of revenues for construction, even though a number of new software solutions have been developed for the industry. Technical challenges specific to the construction sector have a role in смотреть приключение секса в 20 веке без регистрачыи исмс slow pace of digitization.
Rolling out solutions across construction sites for multiple sectors that are geographically dispersed—compare an oil pipeline, say, with an airport—is no easy task. And given the varying sophistication levels of smaller construction firms that often function as subcontractors, building new capabilities at scale is another challenge.
However, none of this is going to get easier. Projects are ever more complex and larger in scale. The growing demand for environmentally sensitive construction means traditional practices must change. And the shortage of skilled labor and supervisory staff will only get worse.
These are deep issues that require new ways of thinking and working. Traditionally, the sector has tended to focus on making incremental improvements, in part because many believe that each project is unique, that it is not possible to scale up new ideas, and that embracing new technologies is impractical. This is a massive incentive for players in the смотреть приключение секса в 20 веке без регистрачыи исмс industry to identify solutions to transform productivity and project delivery through new technologies and improved practices.
In this report, we consider five ways the industry can transform itself over the next five years. None of these five ideas is futuristic or even implausible. All are grounded in innovations that are applicable to the construction sector and that are either being deployed or prototyped.
In short, they are practical and смотреть приключение секса в 20 веке без регистрачыи исмс. Moreover, they are designed to work together to deliver greater impact Exhibit 4.
Geological surprises are a major reason that projects are delayed and go over budget. Discrepancies between ground conditions and early survey estimates can require costly last-minute changes to project scope and design.
New techniques that integrate high-definition photography, 3-D laser scanning, and geographic information systems, enabled by recent improvements in drone and unmanned-aerial-vehicle UAV technology, can dramatically improve accuracy and speed. Photogrammetry, for example, provides high-quality, high-definition images of survey areas but takes time to be converted into a usable format.
Light-detection-and-ranging lidar technology is much faster than conventional technologies and provides high-quality 3-D images that can be integrated with project-planning tools, such as building information modeling BIMas Exhibit 5 shows. Used in conjunction with ground-penetrating radar, magnetometers, and other equipment, lidar can generate above-ground and underground 3-D images of project sites.
This is particularly important in dense, environmentally sensitive, or historical project sites, where disturbance needs to be minimized. These смотреть приключение секса в 20 веке без регистрачыи исмс survey techniques are complemented by geographic information systems that allow maps, images, distance measurements, and GPS positions to be overlaid.
This information can then be uploaded to other analytical and visualization systems for use in project planning and construction. Two or more survey techniques are often used together to save time and money.
For example, for a survey of river sites for minihydropower plants in Southeast Asia, surveyors used lidar maps for general terrain information and drone-mounted high-definition cameras to focus on specific areas. Modern survey technology is more accessible than ever because costs have come down substantially. High-resolution cameras are small and light enough to be mounted on standard industrial drones; this is faster and cheaper than using helicopter-mounted cameras for aerial surveys.
Specialized technology providers offer cost-efficient survey packages, including drone and UAV equipment, data uploading, and processing services, as well as software to manage drone flights, data capture, and dashboards to visualize information. Some government agencies and nongovernmental organizations have started providing free lidar maps. In the s, major aerospace companies pioneered computer-aided 3-D modeling.
This transformed the way aircraft were designed смотреть приключение секса в 20 веке без регистрачыи исмс built and helped to improve sector productivity by up to ten times.
The construction industry, however, has yet to adopt an integrated platform that spans project planning, design, construction, operations, and maintenance. Instead, the industry still relies on bespoke software tools. In addition, project owners and contractors often use different platforms that do not sync with one another.
As a result, there is no single source that provides an integrated, real-time view of project design, cost, and schedule. Next-generation 5-D BIM is a five-dimensional representation of the physical and functional characteristics of any project. It also includes such details such as geometry, specifications, aesthetics, thermal, and acoustic properties. A 5-D BIM platform allows owners and contractors to identify, analyze, and record the impact of changes on project costs and scheduling Exhibit 6.
The visual and intuitive nature of 5-D BIM gives contractors a better смотреть приключение секса в 20 веке без регистрачыи исмс to identify risks earlier and thus to make better decisions. For example, project planners can visualize and estimate the impact of a proposed change in design on project costs and schedule. One study found that 75 percent of those that adopted BIM reported a positive return on their investment.
They also reported shorter project life cycles and savings on paperwork and material costs. Given these benefits, a number of governments, including those in Britain, Finland, and Singapore, mandate the use of BIM for public infrastructure projects.
The use смотреть приключение секса в 20 веке без регистрачыи исмс 5-D BIM technology will be further enhanced through augmented-reality technology via wearable devices. For example, a wearable, self-contained device with a see-through, holographic display and advanced sensors can map the physical environment. Companies are developing BIM-like design and construction solutions for these platforms. Combining 5-D BIM and augmented-reality devices will transform construction, maintenance, and operations.
To get the full benefit of BIM technology, project owners and contractors need to incorporate its use right from the design stage, and all stakeholders need to adopt standardized design and data-reporting formats compatible with BIM.
In addition, owners and contractors need to dedicate resources for BIM implementation and invest in capability building. Process digitization means moving away from paper and toward online, real-time sharing of information to ensure transparency and collaboration, timely progress and risk assessment, quality control, and, eventually, better and more reliable outcomes. Due to the lack of digitization, information sharing is delayed and may not be universal.
Owners and contractors therefore often work from different versions of reality. The use of paper makes it difficult to capture and analyze data; that matters because in procurement and contracting, historical performance analytics can lead to better outcomes and risk management.
Mismanaged paper trails also routinely spur disagreements between owners and смотреть приключение секса в 20 веке без регистрачыи исмс on such matters as construction progress, change orders, and claims management. Finally, paper trails simply take more time. Owners and contractors are beginning to deploy digital-collaboration and field-mobility solutions Exhibit 7. A large global construction firm recently announced a joint development agreement with a software provider to develop a cloud-based, mobile-enabled field-supervision platform that integrates project planning, engineering, physical control, budgeting, and document management for large projects.
Several large project developers have already successfully digitized their project-management work flows. Digitizing work flows has substantial benefits.
In an American tunnel project смотреть приключение секса в 20 веке без регистрачыи исмс involved almost vendors, the contractor developed a single platform solution for bidding, tendering, and contract management. This saved the team more than 20 hours of staff time per week, cut down the time to generate reports by 75 percent, and sped up document transmittals by 90 percent. Crew-mobility solutions will have a similar catalytic effect on productivity Exhibit 8.
Several problems have limited the adoption of such tools by field crews: These are commercially viable for contractors and project owners of all sizes. In fact, the digital-collaboration and mobility-solutions segment has attracted close to 60 percent of all venture funding in the construction-technology sector.
One start-up has developed apps for tablets and smartphones that allow changes in construction blueprints and plans to be relayed in real time to on-site crews; site photos can be hyperlinked to construction plans. This solution maintains a master set of documents with automatic version control and cloud-based access.
Other companies offer mobile timekeeping, real-time cost coding, geolocation of workers, and issue logging and tracking. As frontline users such as project managers, tradespeople, and operators adopt real-time crew-mobility apps, they could change the way the industry does everything from work- and change-order management, time and material tracking, dispatching, scheduling, productivity measurement, and incident reporting.
By measures such as the number of people, the profusion of construction equipment, and the amount of work going on at the same time, project sites are getting denser. They now generate vast amounts of data, a majority of which is not even captured, let alone measured and processed. Sensors, near-field-communication NFC devices, and other technologies can help monitor productivity and reliability of both staff and смотреть приключение секса в 20 веке без регистрачыи исмс.
There are several potential uses:.
This is used extensively in logistics, retail, and manufacturing environments to collect precise information about a product, place, time, and transaction.
Since the s, construction has begun to use RFID for applications such as tracking materials and equipment and developing automated time sheets. And NFC technology is evolving. Soon, tags will be able to include information on specifications, dates, defects, vendors and original-equipment manufacturers, maintenance смотреть приключение секса в 20 веке без регистрачыи исмс, operating parameters, and other applications.
Costs of RFID equipment, including scanners, receivers, and tags, are falling, and new applications are emerging. A British construction company, for example, is using RFID to monitor truck inspection, track tool usage, and train workers at construction sites. In addition to the opportunities from the Internet of Things, the greater use of digitization in the construction-planning process and on the construction site itself is enabling firms to capture data that paper could not.
The insights gained through the adoption of advanced analytics in construction projects can help to improve efficiency, timelines, and risk management.
Advanced analytics helped a major London infrastructure project save time and money when project leaders worked with a data-analytics company to produce a web-based adaptive-instrumentation-and-monitoring system. The system absorbed field-sensor data, construction-progress data, and workforce and vehicle movements.
Statistical analysis based on смотреть приключение секса в 20 веке без регистрачыи исмс information helped project teams detect anomalies and identify potential risks—critical information for a dense and historically sensitive city like London.
For instance, insights from advanced analytics helped an oil and gas giant improve the productivity of its engineering function by 20 to 25 percent by pairing the right teams, appointing appropriate team leads, and modifying their work flows to minimize waste and improve efficiency.
In another case, a large Middle Eastern construction firm worked with a software company to build a predictive analytics engine to prevent equipment breakdowns on-site for its fleet of construction vehicles.
This saved millions of dollars in downtime, fuel costs, and maintenance expenses. And event simulations, coupled with optimization algorithms, have also helped ship builders optimize construction planning.
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